E cigarette toxines
Toxins Basel ; 11 8 Aug Although it was initially considered a lethal toxin, in recent times, Botulinum toxin A BoNT-Awhich is the more used serotype, has expanded to cover different clinical conditions, primarily characterized by neuropathic pain, including migraines and headaches. Evidence suggests that migraines are influenced by hormonal factors, particularly by estrogen levels, but very few studies have investigated the prevalence and management strategies for migraines according to the hormonal status.
The effects of several therapeutic regimens on migraines have been investigated, but the medications used varied widely in proven efficacies and mechanisms of action. BoNT-A is increasingly used in the management of migraine and several placebo-controlled trials of episodic and chronic migraine are currently underway.
This paper is a review of the recently published data concerning the administration of BoNT-A in the prevention of chronic migraines.
Considering e cigarette toxines lack of population-based studies about the effectiveness of BoNT-A in the alleviation of premenstrual and perimenopausal migraines, this study proposes a new perspective of the therapeutic approach of migraine syndrome associated with menopausal transition and the premenstrual period.
BoNT-A often reduces the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks per month; the treatment is well tolerated and does not exhibit a significantly higher rate of treatment-related side effects. No population-based studies were conducted in order to highlight the role of BoNT-A in menopause-related migraines, neither in menstrual migraines.